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October 15, 2021

Whats A Method Of Agreement

Filed under: Uncategorized — Chris Chaten @ 1:07 PM

We should expect to find analogs of concomitant variation of the agreement method and the difference method, i.e. ways of arguing for a causal relationship between P and, say, A, both from the observation of cases where P remains constant while A remains constant, but all other potentially relevant factors vary, and case observation, where P varies, while A varies, but all other potentially relevant factors remain constant. And indeed, there are methods of both types, but those of the second type, the analogues of the method of difference, are more important. In general, we will look for a condition that is both necessary and sufficient for the phenomenon, but there are variants of methods in which we look for a condition that is only necessary or only sufficient. In practice, however, these are conditions that are not absolutely necessary or sufficient, but are rather necessary and/or sufficient in relation to a field, i.e. certain substantive conditions that can be specified more or less precisely. For example, we do not care about the cause of a particular disease in general, but about what causes it in people who live on Earth, breathe air, etc. Again, this is not the cause of hardness in general, but the cause of above-average hardness in iron under ordinary circumstances and at ordinary temperatures. The area in relation to which we are looking for a cause of a phenomenon must be such that the phenomenon sometimes occurs in that area and sometimes not. We can assume that this field consists of the presence of certain qualities or at least some general descriptive characteristics, and not by a specific place. While assumptions continue to be relaxed, the agreement method requires increasingly strong observations. For example, in 6.12, which is a variant of the positive method with a hypothesis that allows that the necessary and sufficient condition can be a disjunction of possible causes or negations, observation is a set of positive instances, so that a possible cause, say A, is present in each, but that for each possible combination of the other possible causes and their negations, there is a case, in which this combination exists (that is, if there are n other possible causes, we need 2n different instances).

This observation will make any disjunction that does not contain A and will show that the necessary and sufficient condition required (A or . ) and therefore A itself is a sufficient condition for P in F. A corresponding variant of the negative method of agreement (5.14) shows that (A. ) is a necessary and sufficient condition and therefore A itself is necessary – a strange reversal of roles, because in the simplest variants the positive method of agreement was used to recognize a necessary condition and the negative a sufficient condition. . . .

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